Lupine, Lupinus polyphyllus

Lupinus polyphyllus: A Vibrant Perennial with Colorful Spikes

Background: Lupinus polyphyllus, commonly known as the Large-leaved Lupine or Garden Lupin, is a captivating herbaceous perennial that delights with its tall spikes of vibrant colors. Belonging to the Fabaceae family, this clump-forming plant is a favorite among gardeners for its striking flowers and attractive foliage.

Characteristics: With its palmately compound medium-green leaves, Lupinus polyphyllus adds a touch of elegance to any garden. The flowers, which grow on tall spikes, are reminiscent of peas and come in various shades of blue, attracting bees and butterflies to the garden. Additionally, Lupinus polyphyllus exhibits a nitrogen-fixing capability, contributing to soil improvement.

Description: Native to Western North America, Lupinus polyphyllus thrives in moist locations, often found near streams. Reaching heights of up to 1.5m or 5ft, this perennial makes a bold statement with its tall flower stems. The blooms, typically blue in color, create a picturesque scene and infuse the garden with their enchanting fragrance.

Origin and Native Habitat:

Lupinus polyphyllus is native to Western North America, where it naturally occurs in moist habitats like stream banks and meadows. Its adaptability to such environments has made it a popular choice for gardens with similar conditions.

Discovery and Cultivation: Lupinus polyphyllus has long been admired for its beauty. The renowned English gardener George Russell cultivated the Russell hybrids, which expanded the range of colors available in Lupinus polyphyllus hybrids. These hybrids now offer shades of white, yellow, deep blue and purple, pink and violet, and even red, providing gardeners with a diverse palette to choose from.

Lupinus polyphyllus
Red Lupine

How to Care for and Maintain Lupinus polyphyllus:

Incorporate the Beauty of Lupinus polyphyllus into Your Garden: Lupinus polyphyllus, with its stunning spikes of colorful flowers, adds a touch of enchantment and vibrancy to any garden. Whether you’re looking to create a striking focal point or enhance existing flower beds, here are a few additional tips to ensure the successful cultivation and maintenance of Lupinus polyphyllus:

Growing Conditions: Lupinus polyphyllus thrives in moist, cool locations. It flourishes in full sun but benefits from afternoon shade in hot climates. It prefers cool summers and ample sunlight for abundant flowering.

Planting: Start Lupinus polyphyllus from seeds, but be mindful of their specific soil requirements in the second year. Plant seeds in early spring or fall, allowing enough space between plants for proper growth (approximately 18 inches apart).

Soil Requirements: Plant Lupinus polyphyllus in organically rich, slightly acidic soil that is evenly moist. Well-drained soil is crucial to prevent waterlogging and root rot. Ensuring good air circulation around the plants helps prevent powdery mildew.

Watering: While Lupinus polyphyllus is relatively drought-tolerant, it appreciates regular watering, especially during dry spells or in hot climates. Aim to keep the soil evenly moist but avoid overwatering, as excessive moisture can lead to root rot.

Pest and Disease Control:

Keep an eye out for common garden pests such as slugs, snails, and aphids. Regular inspection and appropriate pest control measures, such as using organic insecticides or physical barriers, can help protect your Lupinus polyphyllus. Watch for signs of powdery mildew and ensure good air circulation to prevent its occurrence.

Fertilization: To promote healthy growth and abundant blooms, apply a balanced fertilizer in early spring when new growth appears. Follow the package instructions for the recommended dosage, as excessive fertilization can result in excessive foliage growth with fewer flowers.

Staking: Due to its tall flower spikes, Lupinus polyphyllus may benefit from staking or the use of plant supports to prevent the stems from bending or toppling over. This is especially important in windy areas or when growing taller varieties.

Lupine, Kew Gardens
Garden Lupin or Lupinus polyphyllus


Propagate Lupinus polyphyllus through side shoot cuttings to maintain the desired traits and colors of the parent plant.

Mulching: Apply a layer of organic mulch around the base of the plants to help conserve moisture, suppress weed growth, and regulate soil temperature. Avoid placing the mulch directly against the stems to prevent moisture buildup and potential rotting.

Pruning: After the blooming season, you can trim back the spent flower spikes to encourage new growth and potential reblooming. Additionally, in late fall or early spring, consider cutting back the foliage to rejuvenate the plant and maintain its overall shape.

Dividing: Over time, Lupinus polyphyllus may become crowded and benefit from division. Every three to four years, carefully dig up the plant, divide the clumps into smaller sections, and replant them in well-prepared soil. This process helps invigorate the plants and prevents overcrowding.

It’s important to note that Lupinus polyphyllus is considered invasive in several regions, including New Zealand, Sweden, Switzerland, Norway, the Czech Republic, Finland, Lithuania, Ukraine, and Argentina. Therefore, it’s crucial to be cautious when growing this plant in areas where it may pose a risk to local ecosystems.

Lupine, Lupinus polyphyllus
Lupinus polyphyllus
Lupine or Lupinus polyphyllus
Kew Garden’s Lupinus polyphyllus
Lupine flower
Exotic flowers and foliage of Lupinus polyphyllus
Lupine Blossom, Lupinus polyphyllus
Blossoming Lupinus polyphyllus
Colorful Lupine
Colorful Lupine or Lupinus polyphyllus
Lupine, Lupinus polyphyllus
Garden Lupin or Lupine or Lupinus polyphyllus
White Lupine
Creamy white Lupinus polyphyllus
Lupine Leaves, Lupinus polyphyllus
Leaves of Lupinus polyphyllus
Purple Lupine
Purple Lupinus polyphyllus
Lupine or Lupinus polyphyllus
Lupine Red, Lupinus polyphyllus
Lupinus polyphyllus

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